Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Middle Eastern Population

Authors Information
Article Notes and Dates
To Cite : Alswat K A, Sanai F M, Altuwaijri M, Albenmousa A, Almadi M, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Middle Eastern Population, Hepat Mon. 2013 ;13(5):e7612. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.7612.
Copyright: Copyright © 2013, Hepatitis Monthly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited..
Abstract
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. The GLOBOCAN project. 2008;
  • 2. Bosch FX, Ribes J, Díaz M, Cléries R. Primary liver cancer: worldwide incidence and trends. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127(5 Suppl 1)
  • 3. Fattovich G, Stroffolini T, Zagni I, Donato F. Hepatocellular carcinoma in cirrhosis: incidence and risk factors. Gastroenterology. 2004; 127(5 Suppl 1)
  • 4. Saudi Cancer Registry Report. 2005;
  • 5. Abdo AA, Al Abdul Karim H, Al Fuhaid T, Sanai FM, Kabbani M, Al Jumah AR, et al. Saudi gastroenterology association guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma: summary of recommendations. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13(1): 45-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Al-Faleh FZ. Changing pattern of hepatitis viral infection in Saudi Arabia in the last two decades. Ann Saudi Med. 2003; 23(6): 367-71[PubMed]
  • 7. Al-Faleh FZ, Al-Jeffri MH, Al-Rashed RS, Aref M. Efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine in a cohortcommunity-based study in Riyadh and Hail regions of Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2002; 8(3): 81-4[PubMed]
  • 8. al-Faleh FZ, Ayoola EA, Arif M, Ramia S, al-Rashed R, al-Jeffry M, et al. Seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Saudi Arabian children: a baseline survey for mass vaccination against hepatitis B. J Infect. 1992; 24(2): 197-206[PubMed]
  • 9. Arya SC, Ashraf SJ, Parande CM, el-Sayed M, Sahay R, Ageel AR, et al. Hepatitis B virus in Gizan, Saudi Arabia. J Med Virol. 1985; 17(3): 267-74[PubMed]
  • 10. Parande CM, Arya SC, Ashraf SJ. Hepatitis B virus among Saudi children in Gizan, Saudi Arabia. Infection. 1986; 14(5): 223-5[PubMed]
  • 11. Shobokshi OA, Serebour FE. The aetiology of acute viral hepatitis in the western region of Saudi Arabia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987; 81(2): 219-21[PubMed]
  • 12. Al-Faleh FZ, Ayoola EA, Al-Jeffry M, Arif M, Al-Rashed RS, Ramia S. Integration of hepatitis B vaccine into the expanded program on immunization: The Saudi Arabian experience. Ann Saudi Med. 1993; 13(3): 231-6[PubMed]
  • 13. al-Faleh FZ, Ayoola EA, al-Jeffry M, al-Rashed R, al-Mofarreh M, Arif M, et al. Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus among Saudi Arabian children: a community-based study. Hepatology. 1991; 14(2): 215-8[PubMed]
  • 14. Shobokshi OA, Serebour FE, Al-Drees AZ, Mitwalli AH, Qahtani A, Skakni LI. Hepatitis C virus seroprevalence rate among Saudis. Saudi Med J. 2003; 24 Suppl 2-6[PubMed]
  • 15. Memish ZA, Knawy BA, El-Saed A. Incidence trends of viral hepatitis A, B, and C seropositivity over eight years of surveillance in Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Dis. 2010; 14(2)-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Buch SC, Kondragunta V, Branch RA, Carr BI. Gender-based outcomes differences in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatol Int. 2008; 2(1): 95-101[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Bruix J, Sherman M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2005; 42(5): 1208-36[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Prospective validation of the CLIP score: a new prognostic system for patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) Investigators. Hepatology. 2000; 31(4): 840-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Moore KP, Wong F, Gines P, Bernardi M, Ochs A, Salerno F, et al. The management of ascites in cirrhosis: report on the consensus conference of the International Ascites Club. Hepatology. 2003; 38(1): 258-66[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Mullen KD. Review of the final report of the 1998 Working Party on definition, nomenclature and diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007; 25 Suppl 1: 11-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Chalasani N, Imperiale TF, Ismail A, Sood G, Carey M, Wilcox CM, et al. Predictors of large esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999; 94(11): 3285-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Beasley RP, Hwang LY, Lin CC, Chien CS. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B virus. A prospective study of 22 707 men in Taiwan. Lancet. 1981; 2(8256): 1129-33[PubMed]
  • 23. Prates MD, Torres FO. A cancer survey in Lourenco Marques, Portuguese East Africa. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1965; 35(5): 729-57[PubMed]
  • 24. Fashir B, Sivasubramaniam V, Al-Momen S, Assaf H. Hepatic tumors in a Saudi patients population. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 1996; 2(2): 87-90[PubMed]
  • 25. Kingston M, Ali MA, Lewall D. Hepatic tumors in Saudi Arabia. A practical approach to diagnosis. Cancer. 1985; 55(7): 1579-85[PubMed]
  • 26. Naugler WE, Sakurai T, Kim S, Maeda S, Kim K, Elsharkawy AM, et al. Gender disparity in liver cancer due to sex differences in MyD88-dependent IL-6 production. Science. 2007; 317(5834): 121-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Yu MW, Chen CJ. Elevated serum testosterone levels and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1993; 53(4): 790-4[PubMed]
  • 28. Farinati F, Sergio A, Giacomin A, Di Nolfo MA, Del Poggio P, Benvegnu L, et al. Is female sex a significant favorable prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009; 21(10): 1212-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Huang YT, Jen CL, Yang HI, Lee MH, Su J, Lu SN, et al. Lifetime risk and sex difference of hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic hepatitis B and C. J Clin Oncol. 2011; 29(27): 3643-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Tangkijvanich P, Mahachai V, Suwangool P, Poovorawan Y. Gender difference in clinicopathologic features and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2004; 10(11): 1547-50[PubMed]
  • 31. Schafer DF, Sorrell MF. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Lancet. 1999; 353(9160): 1253-7[DOI]
  • 32. Bruix J, Calvet X, Costa J, Ventura M, Bruguera M, Castillo R, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Spanish patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic cirrhosis. The Lancet. 1989; 334(8670): 1004-6
  • 33. Butt AS, Abbas Z, Jafri W. Hepatocellular carcinoma in pakistan: where do we stand? Hepat Mon. 2012; 12(10 HCC)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Hassan MM, Zaghloul AS, El-Serag HB, Soliman O, Patt YZ, Chappell CL, et al. The role of hepatitis C in hepatocellular carcinoma: a case control study among Egyptian patients. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001; 33(2): 123-6[PubMed]
  • 35. Tsukuma H, Hiyama T, Tanaka S, Nakao M, Yabuuchi T, Kitamura T, et al. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma among patients with chronic liver disease. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328(25): 1797-801[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. El-Serag HB, Rudolph KL. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2007; 132(7): 2557-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Fakunle YM, Al-Mofarreh M, El-Drees AZ, El-Karamany WM, Ezzat HO, Ballesteros MN, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis C virus in Saudi patients with chronic liver disease. Ann Saudi Med. 1991; 11(5): 497-500[PubMed]
  • 38. Ayoola EA, Gadour MO. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Saudi Arabia: role of hepatitis B and C infection. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 19(6): 665-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Saeed AA, Ahmed AM, Al-Karawi MA, Mohamed AR, Al-Saud AA, Shariq SA. The association between hepatitis C virus antibody and hepatocellular carcinoma in relation to hepatitis B viral infection (RAFH experinece). Ann Saudi Med. 1992; 12(3): 283-5[PubMed]
  • 40. Alfaleh F, Alshehri S, Alansari S, Aljeffri M, Almazrou Y, Shaffi A, et al. Long-term protection of hepatitis B vaccine 18 years after vaccination. J Infect. 2008; 57(5): 404-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. el-Zayadi AR, Badran HM, Barakat EM, Attia Mel D, Shawky S, Mohamed MK, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: a single center study over a decade. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(33): 5193-8[PubMed]
  • 42. Zanetti AR, Van Damme P, Shouval D. The global impact of vaccination against hepatitis B: a historical overview. Vaccine. 2008; 26(49): 6266-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Chevret S, Trinchet JC, Mathieu D, Rached AA, Beaugrand M, Chastang C. A new prognostic classification for predicting survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 1999; 31(1): 133-41
  • 44. Henderson JM, Sherman M, Tavill A, Abecassis M, Chejfec G, Gramlich T. AHPBA/AJCC consensus conference on staging of hepatocellular carcinoma: consensus statement. HPB (Oxford). 2003; 5(4): 243-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Llovet JM, Bru C, Bruix J. Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: the BCLC staging classification. Semin Liver Dis. 1999; 19(3): 329-38[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Bruix J, Sherman M. Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: an update. Hepatology. 2011; 53(3): 1020-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. EASL-EORTC clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatocellular carcinoma. J Hepatol. 2012; 56(4): 908-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. McMahon BJ, Bulkow L, Harpster A, Snowball M, Lanier A, Sacco F, et al. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma in Alaska natives infected with chronic hepatitis B: a 16-year population-based study. Hepatology. 2000; 32(4 Pt 1): 842-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Sangiovanni A, Del Ninno E, Fasani P, De Fazio C, Ronchi G, Romeo R, et al. Increased survival of cirrhotic patients with a hepatocellular carcinoma detected during surveillance. Gastroenterology. 2004; 126(4): 1005-14[PubMed]
  • 50. Wun YT, Dickinson JA. Alpha-fetoprotein and/or liver ultrasonography for liver cancer screening in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003(2)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Zhang BH, Yang BH, Tang ZY. Randomized controlled trial of screening for hepatocellular carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2004; 130(7): 417-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Abdo AA, Hassanain M, AlJumah A, Al Olayan A, Sanai FM, Alsuhaibani HA, et al. Saudi guidelines for the diagnosis and management of hepatocellular carcinoma: technical review and practice guidelines. Ann Saudi Med. 2012; 32(2): 174-99[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiaion Alert via Google Reader

Cited By:

Hepatitis Monthly accepts terms & conditions of:

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Citedby Linking DOI enabled Crossref iThenticate COPE Cross Check