Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation During HCV Therapy With Pegylated Interferon-α 2b Plus Ribavirin: Effect on Work Performance; A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors Information
Article Notes and Dates
To Cite : Malaguarnera G, Pennisi M, Gagliano C, Vacante M, Malaguarnera M, et al. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Supplementation During HCV Therapy With Pegylated Interferon-α 2b Plus Ribavirin: Effect on Work Performance; A Randomized Clinical Trial, Hepat Mon. 2014 ;14(5):e11608. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.11608.
Copyright: Copyright © 2014, Hepatitis Monthly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited..
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Armstrong GL, Wasley A, Simard EP, McQuillan GM, Kuhnert WL, Alter MJ. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1999 through 2002. Ann Intern Med. 2006; 144(10): 705-14[PubMed]
  • 2. Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Rustgi VK, Shiffman M, Reindollar R, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. The Lancet. 2001; 358(9286): 958-65
  • 3. Foster GR. Quality of life considerations for patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16(9): 605-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Hadziyannis SJ, Koskinas JS. Differences in epidemiology, liver disease and treatment response among HCV genotypes. Hepatol Res. 2004; 29(3): 129-35[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Spiegel BM, Younossi ZM, Hays RD, Revicki D, Robbins S, Kanwal F. Impact of hepatitis C on health related quality of life: a systematic review and quantitative assessment. Hepatology. 2005; 41(4): 790-800[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Schaefer M, Capuron L, Friebe A, Diez-Quevedo C, Robaeys G, Neri S, et al. Hepatitis C infection, antiviral treatment and mental health: a European expert consensus statement. J Hepatol. 2012; 57(6): 1379-90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Rebouche CJ. Carnitine function and requirements during the life cycle. FASEB J. 1992; 6(15): 3379-86[PubMed]
  • 8. Malaguarnera M. Carnitine derivatives: clinical usefulness. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2012; 28(2): 166-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Bertino G, Neri S, Malaguarnera M, Gargante MP, et al. The supplementation of acetyl-L-carnitine decreases fatigue and increases quality of life in patients with hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2011; 31(9): 653-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Malaguarnera M, Bella R, Vacante M, Giordano M, Malaguarnera G, Gargante MP, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine reduces depression and improves quality of life in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011; 46(6): 750-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Malaguarnera M. Acetyl-L-carnitine in hepatic encephalopathy. Metab Brain Dis. 2013; 28(2): 193-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Giordano M, Motta M, Bertino G, Pennisi M, et al. L-carnitine supplementation improves hematological pattern in patients affected by HCV treated with Peg interferon-alpha 2b plus ribavirin. World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(39): 4414-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. World Medical Association declaration of Helsinki. Recommendations guiding physicians in biomedical research involving human subjects. JAMA. 1997; 277(11): 925-6[PubMed]
  • 14. Stuyver L, Wyseur A, van Arnhem W, Hernandez F, Maertens G. Second-generation line probe assay for hepatitis C virus genotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 1996; 34(9): 2259-66[PubMed]
  • 15. Simmonds P, Alberti A, Alter HJ, Bonino F, Bradley DW, Brechot C, et al. A proposed system for the nomenclature of hepatitis C viral genotypes. Hepatology. 1994; 19(5): 1321-4[PubMed]
  • 16. Knodell RG, Ishak KG, Black WC, Chen TS, Craig R, Kaplowitz N, et al. Formulation and application of a numerical scoring system for assessing histological activity in asymptomatic chronic active hepatitis. Hepatology. 1981; 1(5): 431-5[PubMed]
  • 17. Bedossa P, Poynard T. An algorithm for the grading of activity in chronic hepatitis C. The METAVIR Cooperative Study Group. Hepatology. 1996; 24(2): 289-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Wessely S, Powell R. Fatigue syndromes: a comparison of chronic "postviral" fatigue with neuromuscular and affective disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1989; 52(8): 940-8[PubMed]
  • 19. Krupp LB, LaRocca NG, Muir-Nash J, Steinberg AD. The fatigue severity scale. Application to patients with multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arch Neurol. 1989; 46(10): 1121-3[PubMed]
  • 20. Wahlqvist P, Carlsson J, Stalhammar NO, Wiklund I. Validity of a Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire for patients with symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (WPAI-GERD)--results from a cross-sectional study. Value Health. 2002; 5(2): 106-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Reilly MC, Bracco A, Ricci JF, Santoro J, Stevens T. The validity and accuracy of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire--irritable bowel syndrome version (WPAI:IBS). Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004; 20(4): 459-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Malaguarnera M, Laurino A, Di Fazio I, Pistone G, Castorina M, Guccione N, et al. Neuropsychiatric effects and type of IFN-alpha in chronic hepatitis C. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2001; 21(5): 273-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Modabbernia A, Poustchi H, Malekzadeh R. Neuropsychiatric and psychosocial issues of patients with hepatitis C infection: a selective literature review. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Ashrafi M, Modabbernia A, Dalir M, Taslimi S, Karami M, Ostovaneh MR, et al. Predictors of mental and physical health in non-cirrhotic patients with viral hepatitis: a case control study. J Psychosom Res. 2012; 73(3): 218-24[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Malaguarnera M, Vicari E, Calogero A, Cammalleri L, Di Fazio I, Gargante MP, et al. Sexual dysfunction in chronic hepatitis C virus patients treated with interferon alpha and ribavirin. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008; 28(10): 603-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Rampello L, Vecchio I, Malaguarnera M, Rampello L. Parkinsonism with cognitive impairment. Acta Medica Mediterranea. 2012; 28: 123
  • 27. Caraci F, Bosco P, Leggio GM, Malaguarnera M, Drago F, Bucolo C, et al. Clinical pharmacology of novel anti-Alzheimer disease modifying medications. Curr Top Med Chem. 2013; 13(15): 1853-63[PubMed]
  • 28. Poynard T, Cacoub P, Ratziu V, Myers RP, Dezailles MH, Mercadier A, et al. Fatigue in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2002; 9(4): 295-303[PubMed]
  • 29. Vacante M, Malaguarnera G, Pennisi M, Grosso G, Salomone S, Drago F, et al. Work Productivity and Activity Impairment in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Capecitabine. J Cancer Ther. 2013; 4(7): 1224-7
  • 30. Malaguarnera G, Pennisi M, Grosso G, Vacante M, Salomone S, Drago F, et al. Work Productivity and Activity Impairment in Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Capecitabine. J Cancer Ther. 2013; 4(7): 1198-202
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiaion Alert via Google Reader

Cited By:

Hepatitis Monthly accepts terms & conditions of:

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Citedby Linking DOI enabled Crossref iThenticate COPE Cross Check