Hepatitis Monthly

Published by: Kowsar

Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Hepatic Encephalopathy in Hepatitis B Virus-related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure

Zhao-Ni Lin 1 , Yong-Qing Zuo 1 and Peng Hu 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
Article information
  • Hepatitis Monthly: April 01, 2014, 14 (4); e16258
  • Published Online: April 7, 2014
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: November 18, 2013
  • Revised: January 20, 2014
  • Accepted: February 14, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/hepatmon.16258

To Cite: Lin Z, Zuo Y, Hu P. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy with Hepatic Encephalopathy in Hepatitis B Virus-related Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure, Hepat Mon. 2014 ;14(4):e16258. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.16258.

Abstract
Copyright © 2014, Kowsar Corp. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Acknowledgements
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Jalan R, Gines P, Olson JC, Mookerjee RP, Moreau R, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Acute-on chronic liver failure. J Hepatol. 2012; 57(6): 1336-48[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Olson JC, Kamath PS. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: concept, natural history, and prognosis. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2011; 17(2): 165-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Ong JP, Aggarwal A, Krieger D, Easley KA, Karafa MT, Van Lente F, et al. Correlation between ammonia levels and the severity of hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Med. 2003; 114(3): 188-93[PubMed]
  • 4. Mas A. Hepatic encephalopathy: from pathophysiology to treatment. Digestion. 2006; 73 Suppl 1: 86-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Bauer TM, Schwacha H, Steinbruckner B, Brinkmann FE, Ditzen AK, Aponte JJ, et al. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in human cirrhosis is associated with systemic endotoxemia. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97(9): 2364-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Luo M, Li L, Lu CZ, Cao WK. Clinical efficacy and safety of lactulose for minimal hepatic encephalopathy: a meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011; 23(12): 1250-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Bass NM, Mullen KD, Sanyal A, Poordad F, Neff G, Leevy CB, et al. Rifaximin treatment in hepatic encephalopathy. N Engl J Med. 2010; 362(12): 1071-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Lewis SJ, Franco S, Young G, O'Keefe SJ. Altered bowel function and duodenal bacterial overgrowth in patients treated with omeprazole. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1996; 10(4): 557-61[PubMed]
  • 9. Kanno T, Matsuki T, Oka M, Utsunomiya H, Inada K, Magari H, et al. Gastric acid reduction leads to an alteration in lower intestinal microflora. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 381(4): 666-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Janarthanan S, Ditah I, Adler DG, Ehrinpreis MN. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and proton pump inhibitor therapy: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012; 107(7): 1001-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Siple JF, Morey JM, Gutman TE, Weinberg KL, Collins PD. Proton pump inhibitor use and association with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Ann Pharmacother. 2012; 46(10): 1413-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Bajaj JS, Zadvornova Y, Heuman DM, Hafeezullah M, Hoffmann RG, Sanyal AJ, et al. Association of proton pump inhibitor therapy with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104(5): 1130-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Blei AT, Cordoba J, Practice Parameters Committee of the American College of G. Hepatic Encephalopathy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96(7): 1968-76[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Sanaka M, Yamamoto T, Kuyama Y. Effects of proton pump inhibitors on gastric emptying: a systematic review. Dig Dis Sci. 2010; 55(9): 2431-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Huang K, Hu JH, Wang HF, He WP, Chen J, Duan XZ, et al. Survival and prognostic factors in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure. World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(29): 3448-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Goel GA, Deshpande A, Lopez R, Hall GS, van Duin D, Carey WD. Increased rate of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis among cirrhotic patients receiving pharmacologic acid suppression. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 10(4): 422-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Li XM, Ma L, Yang YB, Shi ZJ, Zhou SS. Analyses of prognostic indices of chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis virus. World J Gastroenterol. 2005; 11(18): 2841-3[PubMed]
  • 18. Liu Q, Liu Z, Wang T, Wang Q, Shi X, Dao W. Characteristics of acute and sub-acute liver failure in China: nomination, classification and interval. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 22(12): 2101-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Rohss K, Lind T, Wilder-Smith C. Esomeprazole 40 mg provides more effective intragastric acid control than lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2004; 60(8): 531-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Gan KH, Geus WP, Lamers CB, Heijerman HG. Effect of omeprazole 40 mg once daily on intraduodenal and intragastric pH in H. pylori-negative healthy subjects. Dig Dis Sci. 1997; 42(11): 2304-9[PubMed]
  • 21. Metz DC, Pratha V, Martin P, Paul J, Maton PN, Lew E, et al. Oral and intravenous dosage forms of pantoprazole are equivalent in their ability to suppress gastric acid secretion in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000; 95(3): 626-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Sarin SK, Kumar A, Almeida JA, Chawla YK, Fan ST, Garg H, et al. Acute-on-chronic liver failure: consensus recommendations of the Asian Pacific Association for the study of the liver (APASL). Hepatol Int. 2009; 3(1): 269-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Tennant SM, Hartland EL, Phumoonna T, Lyras D, Rood JI, Robins-Browne RM, et al. Influence of gastric acid on susceptibility to infection with ingested bacterial pathogens. Infect Immun. 2008; 76(2): 639-45[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Dinsmore JE, Jackson RJ, Smith SD. The protective role of gastric acidity in neonatal bacterial translocation. J Pediatr Surg. 1997; 32(7): 1014-6[PubMed]
  • 25. Campbell MS, Obstein K, Reddy KR, Yang YX. Association between proton pump inhibitor use and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2008; 53(2): 394-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Choi EJ, Lee HJ, Kim KO, Lee SH, Eun JR, Jang BI, et al. Association between acid suppressive therapy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011; 46(5): 616-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Zedtwitz-Liebenstein K, Wenisch C, Patruta S, Parschalk B, Daxbock F, Graninger W. Omeprazole treatment diminishes intra- and extracellular neutrophil reactive oxygen production and bactericidal activity. Crit Care Med. 2002; 30(5): 1118-22[PubMed]
  • 28. Deshpande A, Pant C, Pasupuleti V, Rolston DD, Jain A, Deshpande N, et al. Association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and Clostridium difficile infection in a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 10(3): 225-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Kwok CS, Arthur AK, Anibueze CI, Singh S, Cavallazzi R, Loke YK. Risk of Clostridium difficile infection with acid suppressing drugs and antibiotics: meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012; 107(7): 1011-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Bavishi C, Dupont HL. Systematic review: the use of proton pump inhibitors and increased susceptibility to enteric infection. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 34(11-12): 1269-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Tleyjeh IM, Bin Abdulhak AA, Riaz M, Alasmari FA, Garbati MA, AlGhamdi M, et al. Association between proton pump inhibitor therapy and clostridium difficile infection: a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Tleyjeh IM, Abdulhak AB, Riaz M, Garbati MA, Al-Tannir M, Alasmari FA, et al. The association between histamine 2 receptor antagonist use and Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Herzig SJ, Howell MD, Ngo LH, Marcantonio ER. Acid-suppressive medication use and the risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia. JAMA. 2009; 301(20): 2120-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Laheij RJ, Sturkenboom MC, Hassing RJ, Dieleman J, Stricker BH, Jansen JB. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia and use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs. JAMA. 2004; 292(16): 1955-60[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Dial S, Delaney JA, Barkun AN, Suissa S. Use of gastric acid-suppressive agents and the risk of community-acquired Clostridium difficile-associated disease. JAMA. 2005; 294(23): 2989-95[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Yang YX, Lewis JD, Epstein S, Metz DC. Long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy and risk of hip fracture. JAMA. 2006; 296(24): 2947-53[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Targownik LE, Lix LM, Metge CJ, Prior HJ, Leung S, Leslie WD. Use of proton pump inhibitors and risk of osteoporosis-related fractures. CMAJ. 2008; 179(4): 319-26[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Mullen KD, Prakash RK. Hepatic encephalopathy.: 2012; [DOI]
  • 39. Kalaitzakis E, Bjornsson E. Inadequate use of proton-pump inhibitors in patients with liver cirrhosis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 20(6): 512-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Delate T, Mager DE, Sheth J, Motheral BR. Clinical and financial outcomes associated with a proton pump inhibitor prior-authorization program in a Medicaid population. Am J Manag Care. 2005; 11(1): 29-36[PubMed]
  • 41. Garcia-Saenz-de-Sicilia M, Sanchez-Avila F, Chavez-Tapia NC, Lopez-Arce G, Garcia-Osogobio S, Ruiz-Cordero R, et al. PPIs are not associated with a lower incidence of portal-hypertension-related bleeding in cirrhosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010; 16(46): 5869-73[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments