Prognostic Values of Fluctuations in Serum Levels of Alanine Transaminase in Inactive Carrier State of HBV Infection

Authors Information
Article Notes and Dates
To Cite : Farzi H, Ebrahimi Daryani N, Mehrnoush L, Salimi S, Alavian S M. et al. Prognostic Values of Fluctuations in Serum Levels of Alanine Transaminase in Inactive Carrier State of HBV Infection, Hepat Mon. 2014 ;14(5):e17537. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.17537.
Copyright: Copyright © 2014, Hepatitis Monthly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited..
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Chen JD, Yang HI, Iloeje UH, You SL, Lu SN, Wang LY, et al. Carriers of inactive hepatitis B virus are still at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. Gastroenterology. 2010; 138(5): 1747-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Bortolotti F, Guido M, Bartolacci S, Cadrobbi P, Crivellaro C, Noventa F, et al. Chronic hepatitis B in children after e antigen seroclearance: final report of a 29-year longitudinal study. Hepatology. 2006; 43(3): 556-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Sharma SK, Saini N, Chwla Y. Hepatitis B virus: inactive carriers. Virol J. 2005; 2: 82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. European Association For The Study Of The L. EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. J Hepatol. 2012; 57(1): 167-85[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Lok AS, McMahon BJ. Chronic hepatitis B: update 2009. Hepatology. 2009; 50(3): 661-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Papatheodoridis GV, Manolakopoulos S, Liaw YF, Lok A. Follow-up and indications for liver biopsy in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection with persistently normal ALT: a systematic review. J Hepatol. 2012; 57(1): 196-202[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Fateen AA, Shahin RY, Farres MN, Eldeeb MA, Amer HA. Assessment of hepatic fibrosis and necroinflammation among inactive HBsAg carriers in Egypt. Ann Hepatol. 2012; 11(4): 464-70[PubMed]
  • 8. Maimone S, Calvaruso V, Pleguezuelo M, Squadrito G, Amaddeo G, Jacobs M, et al. An evaluation of transient elastography in the discrimination of HBeAg-negative disease from inactive hepatitis B carriers. J Viral Hepat. 2009; 16(11): 769-74[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Martinot-Peignoux M, Boyer N, Colombat M, Akremi R, Pham BN, Ollivier S, et al. Serum hepatitis B virus DNA levels and liver histology in inactive HBsAg carriers. J Hepatol. 2002; 36(4): 543-6[PubMed]
  • 10. Iloeje UH, Yang HI, Su J, Jen CL, You SL, Chen CJ, et al. Predicting cirrhosis risk based on the level of circulating hepatitis B viral load. Gastroenterology. 2006; 130(3): 678-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Iloeje UH, Yang HI, Chen CJ. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: what exactly has REVEAL revealed? Liver Int. 2012; 32(9): 1333-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Sporea I, Nicolita D, Sirli R, Deleanu A, Tudora A, Bota S. Assessment of noninvasive liver stiffness in inactive HBsAg carriers by transient elastography: Fibroscan in inactive HBsAg carriers. Hepat Mon. 2011; 11(3): 182-5[PubMed]
  • 13. Villa E, Fattovich G, Mauro A, Pasino M. Natural history of chronic HBV infection: special emphasis on the prognostic implications of the inactive carrier state versus chronic hepatitis. Dig Liver Dis. 2011; 43 Suppl 1-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Chu CM, Liaw YF. Incidence and risk factors of progression to cirrhosis in inactive carriers of hepatitis B virus. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009; 104(7): 1693-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Chu CM, Liaw YF. Spontaneous relapse of hepatitis in inactive HBsAg carriers. Hepatol Int. 2007; 1(2): 311-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Tohme RA, Bulkow L, Homan CE, Negus S, McMahon BJ. Rates and risk factors for hepatitis B reactivation in a cohort of persons in the inactive phase of chronic hepatitis B-Alaska, 2001-2010. J Clin Virol. 2013; 58(2): 396-400[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Tseng TC, Liu CJ, Yang HC, Su TH, Wang CC, Chen CL, et al. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen levels help predict disease progression in patients with low hepatitis B virus loads. Hepatology. 2013; 57(2): 441-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Chu CM, Liaw YF. Predictive factors for reactivation of hepatitis B following hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B. Gastroenterology. 2007; 133(5): 1458-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Sali S, Alavian SM, Foster GR, Keyvani H, Mehrnoosh L, Mohammadi N. Influencing Factors on the Outcome and Prognosis of Patients With HBV Infction: Seven Years Follow-up. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(7)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Alam S, Ahmad N, Mustafa G, Shrestha A, Alam AK, Khan M. Evaluation of normal or minimally elevated alanine transaminase, age and DNA level in predicting liver histological changes in chronic hepatitis B. Liver Int. 2011; 31(6): 824-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Tai DI, Lin SM, Sheen IS, Chu CM, Lin DY, Liaw YF. Long-term outcome of hepatitis B e antigen-negative hepatitis B surface antigen carriers in relation to changes of alanine aminotransferase levels over time. Hepatology. 2009; 49(6): 1859-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Hann HW, Wan S, Myers RE, Hann RS, Xing J, Chen B, et al. Comprehensive analysis of common serum liver enzymes as prospective predictors of hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV patients. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Chen CF, Lee WC, Yang HI, Chang HC, Jen CL, Iloeje UH, et al. Changes in serum levels of HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase determine risk for hepatocellular carcinoma. Gastroenterology. 2011; 141(4): 1240-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Gunji T, Matsuhashi N, Sato H, Iijima K, Fujibayashi K, Okumura M, et al. Risk factors for serum alanine aminotransferase elevation: A cross-sectional study of healthy adult males in Tokyo, Japan. Dig Liver Dis. 2010; 42(12): 882-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Cotler SJ, Dhamija MK, Luc BJ, Siqueira F, Bartram AH, Layden TJ, et al. The prevalence and clinical correlates of elevated ALT levels in an urban Chinatown community. J Viral Hepat. 2010; 17(2): 148-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Adams LA, Knuiman MW, Divitini ML, Olynyk JK. Body mass index is a stronger predictor of alanine aminotransaminase levels than alcohol consumption. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008; 23(7 Pt 1): 1089-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Papatheodoridis GV, Goulis J, Christodoulou D, Manolakopoulos S, Raptopoulou M, Andrioti E, et al. High prevalence of elevated liver enzymes in blood donors: associations with male gender and central adiposity. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 19(4): 281-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Chen CH, Huang MH, Yang JC, Nien CK, Yang CC, Yeh YH, et al. Prevalence and etiology of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase level in an adult population in Taiwan. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007; 22(9): 1482-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Ioannou GN, Boyko EJ, Lee SP. The prevalence and predictors of elevated serum aminotransferase activity in the United States in 1999-2002. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101(1): 76-82[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Pendino GM, Mariano A, Surace P, Caserta CA, Fiorillo MT, Amante A, et al. Prevalence and etiology of altered liver tests: a population-based survey in a Mediterranean town. Hepatology. 2005; 41(5): 1151-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Clark JM, Brancati FL, Diehl AM. The prevalence and etiology of elevated aminotransferase levels in the United States. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003; 98(5): 960-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Leise MD, Poterucha JJ, Talwalkar JA. Drug-induced liver injury. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014; 89(1): 95-106[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Tajiri K, Shimizu Y. Practical guidelines for diagnosis and early management of drug-induced liver injury. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(44): 6774-85[PubMed]
  • 34. Jamali R, Khonsari M, Merat S, Khoshnia M, Jafari E, Bahram Kalhori A, et al. Persistent alanine aminotransferase elevation among the general Iranian population: prevalence and causes. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(18): 2867-71[PubMed]
  • 35. Demir K, Akyuz F, Ozdil S, Aksoy N, Kaymakoglu S, Poturoglu S, et al. What is the reason of elevated alanine aminotransferase level in HBeAg negative patients with low viremia: NAFLD or chronic hepatitis? Ann Hepatol. 2007; 6(2): 92-6[PubMed]
  • 36. Tong MJ, Trieu J. Hepatitis B inactive carriers: clinical course and outcomes. J Dig Dis. 2013; 14(6): 311-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Bahramali G, Sadeghizadeh M, Amini-Bavil-Olyaee S, Alavian SM, Behzad-Behbahani A, Adeli A, et al. Clinical, virologic and phylogenetic features of hepatitis B infection in Iranian patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(35): 5448-53[PubMed]
  • 38. Alavian SM, Keyvani H, Rezai M, Ashayeri N, Sadeghi HM. Preliminary report of hepatitis B virus genotype prevalence in Iran. World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12(32): 5211-3[PubMed]
  • 39. Kumar A, Kumar SI, Pandey R, Naik S, Aggarwal R. Hepatitis B virus genotype A is more often associated with severe liver disease in northern India than is genotype D. Indian J Gastroenterol. 2005; 24(1): 19-22[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiaion Alert via Google Reader

Cited By:

Hepatitis Monthly accepts terms & conditions of:

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) Citedby Linking DOI enabled Crossref iThenticate COPE Cross Check