Hepatitis Monthly

Published by: Kowsar

Geographic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Pakistan

Nasar Khan 1 , Muhammad Akmal 1 , Muhammad Hayat 1 , Muhammad Umar 1 , Atta Ullah 1 , Iqbal Ahmed 1 , Kashif Rahim 1 , Sadar Ali 1 , Sulaiman Bahadar 1 and Shamim Saleha 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology (KUST), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Kohat, Pakistan
Article information
  • Hepatitis Monthly: October 2014, 14 (10); e20299
  • Published Online: October 11, 2014
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 18, 2014
  • Revised: August 19, 2014
  • Accepted: September 2, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/hepatmon.20299

To Cite: Khan N, Akmal M, Hayat M, Umar M, Ullah A, et al. Geographic Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Pakistan, Hepat Mon. 2014 ;14(10):e20299. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.20299.

Copyright: Copyright © 2014, Hepatitis Monthly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited..
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Patients and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Alter MJ. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13(17): 2436-41[PubMed]
  • 2. Idrees M, Rafique S, Rehman I, Akbar H, Yousaf MZ, Butt S, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a infection and hepatocellular carcinoma: Pakistan experience. World J Gastroenterol. 2009; 15(40): 5080-5[PubMed]
  • 3. Hatzakis A, Wait S, Bruix J, Buti M, Carballo M, Cavaleri M, et al. The state of hepatitis B and C in Europe: report from the hepatitis B and C summit conference*. J Viral Hepat. 2011; 18 Suppl 1: 1-16[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Simmonds P. Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus--15 years on. J Gen Virol. 2004; 85: 3173-88[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Penin F, Brass V, Appel N, Ramboarina S, Montserret R, Ficheux D, et al. Structure and function of the membrane anchor domain of hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(39): 40835-43[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Drexler JF, Kupfer B, Petersen N, Grotto RM, Rodrigues SM, Grywna K, et al. A novel diagnostic target in the hepatitis C virus genome. PLoS Med. 2009; 6(2)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Zein NN, Rakela J, Krawitt EL, Reddy KR, Tominaga T, Persing DH. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in the United States: epidemiology, pathogenicity, and response to interferon therapy. Collaborative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1996; 125(8): 634-9[PubMed]
  • 8. Nousbaum JB, Pol S, Nalpas B, Landais P, Berthelot P, Brechot C. Hepatitis C virus type 1b (II) infection in France and Italy. Collaborative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122(3): 161-8[PubMed]
  • 9. Ramia S, Eid-Fares J. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in the Middle East. Int J Infect Dis. 2006; 10(4): 272-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Pawlotsky JM. Mechanisms of antiviral treatment efficacy and failure in chronic hepatitis C. Antiviral Res. 2003; 59(1): 1-11[PubMed]
  • 11. Afridi SQ, Zahid MN, Shabbir MZ, Hussain Z, Mukhtar N, Tipu MY, et al. Prevalence of HCV genotypes in district Mardan. Virol J. 2013; 10: 90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Idrees M, Riazuddin S. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission. BMC Infect Dis. 2008; 8: 69[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Waqar M, Khan AU, Rehman HU, Idrees M, Wasim M, Ali A, et al. Determination of hepatitis C virus genotypes circulating in different districts of Punjab (Pakistan). Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 26(1): 59-64[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Ohno T, Mizokami M, Saleh MG, Orito E, Ohba KI, Wu RR, et al. Usefulness and limitation of phylogenetic analysis for hepatitis C virus core region: application to isolates from Egyptian and Yemeni patients. Arch Virol. 1996; 141(6): 1101-13[PubMed]
  • 15. Davis GL, Esteban-Mur R, Rustgi V, Hoefs J, Gordon SC, Trepo C, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of relapse of chronic hepatitis C. International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(21): 1493-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Elasifer HA, Agnnyia YM, Al-Alagi BA, Daw MA. Epidemiological manifestations of hepatitis C virus genotypes and its association with potential risk factors among Libyan patients. Virol J. 2010; 7: 317[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Rouabhia S, Sadelaoud M, Chaabna-Mokrane K, Toumi W, Abenavoli L. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in north eastern Algeria: A retrospective study. World J Hepatol. 2013; 5(7): 393-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Jahanbakhsh Sefidi F, Keyvani H, Monavari SH, Alavian SM, Fakhim S, Bokharaei-Salim F. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Iranian chronic infected patients. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Attaullah S, Khan S, Ali I. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Pakistan: a systemic review. Virol J. 2011; 8: 433[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Sanders-Buell E, Rutvisuttinunt W, Todd CS, Nasir A, Bradfield A, Lei E, et al. Hepatitis C genotype distribution and homology among geographically disparate injecting drug users in Afghanistan. J Med Virol. 2013; 85(7): 1170-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Das BR, Kundu B, Khandapkar R, Sahni S. Geographical distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2002; 45(3): 323-8[PubMed]
  • 22. Cui Y, Jia J. Update on epidemiology of hepatitis B and C in China. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 28 Suppl 1: 7-10[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Schroter M, Feucht HH, Zollner B, Schafer P, Laufs R. Multiple infections with different HCV genotypes: prevalence and clinical impact. J Clin Virol. 2003; 27(2): 200-4[PubMed]
  • 24. Pujol FH, Loureiro CL. Replacement of hepatitis C virus genotype 1b by genotype 2 over a 10-year period in Venezuela. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2007; 41(5): 518-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Rehman IU, Idrees M, Ali M, Ali L, Butt S, Hussain A, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotype 3a with phylogenetically distinct origin is circulating in Pakistan. Genet Vaccines Ther. 2011; 9(1): 2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Petruzziello A, Coppola N, Diodato AM, Iervolino V, Azzaro R, Di Costanzo G, et al. Age and gender distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in the metropolitan area of Naples. Intervirology. 2013; 56(3): 206-12[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Cenci M, Massi M, Alderisio M, De Soccio G, Recchia O. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and increase of type 4 in central Italy: an update and report of a new method of HCV genotyping. Anticancer Res. 2007; 27(2): 1219-22[PubMed]
  • 28. Henquell C, Cartau C, Abergel A, Laurichesse H, Regagnon C, De Champs C, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus type 5 in central France evidenced by a prospective study from 1996 to 2002. J Clin Microbiol. 2004; 42(7): 3030-5[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader