Hepatitis Monthly

Published by: Kowsar

Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Bahrain

Essam M. Janahi 1 , * , Mariam Al-Mannai 2 , Hemlata Singh 1 and Mohamed M. Jahromi 3
Authors Information
1 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir, Bahrain
2 Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir, Bahrain
3 Salmaniya Medical Complex, Ministry of Health, Manama, Bahrain and Dasman Diabetes Institute, Kuwait City, Kuwait
Article information
  • Hepatitis Monthly: December 01, 2015, 15 (12); e30300
  • Published Online: December 7, 2015
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: May 27, 2015
  • Revised: July 12, 2015
  • Accepted: August 4, 2015
  • DOI: 10.5812/hepatmon.30300

To Cite: Janahi E M, Al-Mannai M, Singh H, Jahromi M M. Distribution of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Bahrain, Hepat Mon. 2015 ; 15(12):e30300. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.30300.

Copyright © 2015, Kowsar Corp. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Idrees M, Riazuddin S. Frequency distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in different geographical regions of Pakistan and their possible routes of transmission. BMC Infect Dis. 2008; 8: 69[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Westbrook RH, Dusheiko G. Natural history of hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2014; 61(1 Suppl)-68[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Alavian SM. We Need a New National Approach to Control Hepatitis C: It is Becoming too Late. Hepat Mon. 2008; 8(3): 165-9
  • 4. Brown RJ, Gaglio PJ. Scope of worldwide hepatitis C problem. Liver Transpl. 2003; 9(11)-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Hajiani E, Masjedizadeh R, Hashemi J, Azmi M, Rajabi T. Hepatis C virus transmission and its risk factors within families of patients infected with hepatitis C virus in southern Iran: Khuzestan. World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12(43): 7025-8[PubMed]
  • 6. Lavanchy D. The global burden of hepatitis C. Liver Int. 2009; 29 Suppl 1: 74-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Afridi SQ, Zahid MN, Shabbir MZ, Hussain Z, Mukhtar N, Tipu MY, et al. Prevalence of HCV genotypes in district Mardan. Virol J. 2013; 10: 90[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Pfaender S, Brown RJ, Pietschmann T, Steinmann E. Natural reservoirs for homologs of hepatitis C virus. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2014; 3(3)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Smith DB, Bukh J, Kuiken C, Muerhoff AS, Rice CM, Stapleton JT, et al. Expanded classification of hepatitis C virus into 7 genotypes and 67 subtypes: Updated criteria and genotype assignment web resource. Hepatology. 2014; 59(1): 318-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Bukh J, Miller RH, Purcell RH. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus: quasispecies and genotypes. Semin Liver Dis. 1995; 15(1): 41-63[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Simmonds P. Variability of hepatitis C virus. Hepatology. 1995; 21(2): 570-83[PubMed]
  • 12. Bdour S. Hepatitis C virus infection in Jordanian haemodialysis units: serological diagnosis and genotyping. J Med Microbiol. 2002; 51(8): 700-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Bokharaei-Salim F, Keyvani H, Monavari SH, Alavian SM, Fakhim S, Nasseri S. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes among azerbaijani patients in capital city of iran-tehran. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(9)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Jahanbakhsh Sefidi F, Keyvani H, Monavari SH, Alavian SM, Fakhim S, Bokharaei-Salim F. Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Iranian chronic infected patients. Hepat Mon. 2013; 13(1)[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Bozdayi AM, Aslan N, Bozdayi G, Turkyilmaz AR, Sengezer T, Wend U, et al. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B, C and D viruses in Turkish patients. Arch Virol. 2004; 149(11): 2115-29[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Shemer-Avni Y, el Astal Z, Kemper O, el Najjar KJ, Yaari A, Hanuka N, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and genotypes in Southern Israel and the Gaza Strip. J Med Virol. 1998; 56(3): 230-3[PubMed]
  • 17. Al-Kubaisy WA, Al-Naib KT, Habib M. Seroprevalence of hepatitis C virus specific antibodies among Iraqi children with thalassaemia. East Mediterr Health J. 2006; 12(1-2): 204-10[PubMed]
  • 18. Shobokshi OA, Serebour FE, Skakni L, Al-Saffy YH, Ahdal MN. Hepatitis C genotypes and subtypes in Saudi Arabia. J Med Virol. 1999; 58(1): 44-8[PubMed]
  • 19. Ohno T, Mizokami M, Saleh MG, Orito E, Ohba KI, Wu RR, et al. Usefulness and limitation of phylogenetic analysis for hepatitis C virus core region: application to isolates from Egyptian and Yemeni patients. Arch Virol. 1996; 141(6): 1101-13[PubMed]
  • 20. Takada N, Takase S, Takada A, Date T. Differences in the hepatitis C virus genotypes in different countries. J Hepatol. 1993; 17(3): 277-83[PubMed]
  • 21. Zein NN. Clinical significance of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000; 13(2): 223-35[PubMed]
  • 22. de Lamballerie X, Charrel RN, Attoui H, De Micco P. Classification of hepatitis C virus variants in six major types based on analysis of the envelope 1 and nonstructural 5B genome regions and complete polyprotein sequences. J Gen Virol. 1997; 78 ( Pt 1): 45-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Tokita H, Okamoto H, Iizuka H, Kishimoto J, Tsuda F, Miyakawa Y, et al. The entire nucleotide sequences of three hepatitis C virus isolates in genetic groups 7-9 and comparison with those in the other eight genetic groups. J Gen Virol. 1998; 79 ( Pt 8): 1847-57[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Tokita H, Okamoto H, Tsuda F, Song P, Nakata S, Chosa T, et al. Hepatitis C virus variants from Vietnam are classifiable into the seventh, eighth, and ninth major genetic groups. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994; 91(23): 11022-6[PubMed]
  • 25. Tokita H, Okamoto H, Iizuka H, Kishimoto J, Tsuda F, Lesmana LA, et al. Hepatitis C virus variants from Jakarta, Indonesia classifiable into novel genotypes in the second (2e and 2f), tenth (10a) and eleventh (11a) genetic groups. J Gen Virol. 1996; 77 ( Pt 2 ): 293-301[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, Schiff ER, Shiffman ML, Lee WM, Rustgi VK, et al. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(21): 1485-92[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Verbeeck J, Stanley MJ, Shieh J, Celis L, Huyck E, Wollants E, et al. Evaluation of Versant hepatitis C virus genotype assay (LiPA) 2.0. J Clin Microbiol. 2008; 46(6): 1901-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Poynard T, Bedossa P, Chevallier M, Mathurin P, Lemonnier C, Trepo C, et al. A comparison of three interferon alfa-2b regimens for the long-term treatment of chronic non-A, non-B hepatitis. Multicenter Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995; 332(22): 1457-62[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. McHutchison JG, Poynard T, Esteban-Mur R, Davis GL, Goodman ZD, Harvey J, et al. Hepatic HCV RNA before and after treatment with interferon alone or combined with ribavirin. Hepatology. 2002; 35(3): 688-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Dusheiko G, Main J, Thomas H, Reichard O, Lee C, Dhillon A, et al. Ribavirin treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C: Results of a placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol. 1996; 25(5): 591-8[PubMed]
  • 31. Nousbaum JB, Pol S, Nalpas B, Landais P, Berthelot P, Brechot C. Hepatitis C virus type 1b (II) infection in France and Italy. Collaborative Study Group. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122(3): 161-8[PubMed]
  • 32. Basic Data on Infectious Diseases at Population Level. Bahrain; Ministry of Health. 2014;
  • 33. Jafri W, Jafri N, Yakoob J, Islam M, Tirmizi SF, Jafar T, et al. Hepatitis B and C: prevalence and risk factors associated with seropositivity among children in Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Infect Dis. 2006; 6: 101[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Khan AJ, Luby SP, Fikree F, Karim A, Obaid S, Dellawala S, et al. Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan. Bull World Health Organ. 2000; 78(8): 956-63[PubMed]
  • 35. el-Zayadi A, Simmonds P, Dabbous H, Prescott L, Selim O, Ahdy A. Response to interferon-alpha of Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 4. J Viral Hepat. 1996; 3(5): 261-4[PubMed]
  • 36. Xu LZ, Larzul D, Delaporte E, Brechot C, Kremsdorf D. Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 is highly prevalent in central Africa (Gabon). J Gen Virol. 1994; 75 ( Pt 9): 2393-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Ray SC, Arthur RR, Carella A, Bukh J, Thomas DL. Genetic epidemiology of hepatitis C virus throughout egypt. J Infect Dis. 2000; 182(3): 698-707[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Abdulkarim AS, Zein NN, Germer JJ, Kolbert CP, Kabbani L, Krajnik KL, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and hepatitis G virus in hemodialysis patients from Syria: Identification of two novel hepatitis C virus subtypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1998; 59(4): 571-6[PubMed]
  • 39. de Moreau de Gerbehaye AI, Bodeus M, Goubau P. Age trend in hepatitis C virus genotype distribution as seen in a Brussels teaching hospital. Acta Clin Belg. 2001; 56(4): 220-4[DOI][PubMed]
  • 40. Payan C, Roudot-Thoraval F, Marcellin P, Bled N, Duverlie G, Fouchard-Hubert I, et al. Changing of hepatitis C virus genotype patterns in France at the beginning of the third millenium: The GEMHEP GenoCII Study. J Viral Hepat. 2005; 12(4): 405-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Ross RS, Viazov S, Renzing-Kohler K, Roggendorf M. Changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis C infection in Germany: Shift in the predominance of hepatitis C subtypes. J Med Virol. 2000; 60(2): 122-5[PubMed]
  • 42. Benani A, El-Turk J, Benjelloun S, Sekkat S, Nadifi S, Hda N, et al. HCV genotypes in Morocco. J Med Virol. 1997; 52(4): 396-8[PubMed]
  • 43. Svirtlih N, Delic D, Simonovic J, Jevtovic D, Dokic L, Gvozdenovic E, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in Serbia and Montenegro: The prevalence and clinical significance. World J Gastroenterol. 2007; 13(3): 355-60[PubMed]
  • 44. Seme K, Vrhovac M, Mocilnik T, Maticic M, Lesnicar G, Baklan Z, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes in 1,504 patients in Slovenia, 1993-2007. J Med Virol. 2009; 81(4): 634-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Pawlotsky JM, Bastie A, Pellet C, Remire J, Darthuy F, Wolfe L, et al. Significance of indeterminate third-generation hepatitis C virus recombinant immunoblot assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1996; 34(1): 80-3[PubMed]
  • 46. Pawlotsky JM, Prescott L, Simmonds P, Pellet C, Laurent-Puig P, Labonne C, et al. Serological determination of hepatitis C virus genotype: comparison with a standardized genotyping assay. J Clin Microbiol. 1997; 35(7): 1734-9[PubMed]
  • 47. Savvas SP, Koskinas J, Sinani C, Hadziyannis A, Spanou F, Hadziyannis SJ. Changes in epidemiological patterns of HCV infection and their impact on liver disease over the last 20 years in Greece. J Viral Hepat. 2005; 12(5): 551-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. Jarvis LM, Ludlam CA, Ellender JA, Nemes L, Field SP, Song E, et al. Investigation of the relative infectivity and pathogenicity of different hepatitis C virus genotypes in hemophiliacs. Blood. 1996; 87(7): 3007-11[PubMed]
  • 49. Alavian SM, Gholami B, Masarrat S. Hepatitis C risk factors in Iranian volunteer blood donors: a case-control study. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002; 17(10): 1092-7[PubMed]
  • 50. Ahmadipour MH, Alavian SM, Amini S, Azadmanesh K. Hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepat Mon. 2005; 5(3): 77-82
  • 51. Al Arrayed SS. Prevalence of abnormal hemoglobins among students in Bahrain: A ten-year study. Bahrain Med Bull. 2011; 33(1): 19-21
  • 52. Jarvis LM, Watson HG, McOmish F, Peutherer JF, Ludlam CA, Simmonds P. Frequent reinfection and reactivation of hepatitis C virus genotypes in multitransfused hemophiliacs. J Infect Dis. 1994; 170(4): 1018-22[PubMed]
  • 53. White PA, Li Z, Zhai X, Marinos G, Rawlinson WD. Mixed viral infection identified using heteroduplex mobility analysis (HMA). Virology. 2000; 271(2): 382-9[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments