Efficacy of HBV Vaccination in Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Earlier Better?
S, Hatmi Zinat
N, et al. Efficacy of HBV Vaccination in Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Earlier Better?,
Online ahead of Print
Background: Despite improvement in hepatitis B infection prevention through national vaccination programs, implementation of compulsory and thorough blood donor screening, and reduction of transfusion numbers due to erythropoietin administration, hepatitis B remains a major concern in hemodialysis (HD) centers (1). Compared to a response rate of over 90% in the normal population, only 50 to 60% of those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) achieve protective antibody levels following immunization against hepatitis B (2, 3). Various strategies have been developed to overcome the low seroconversion rate in ESRD patients, including co-administering zinc, gamma-interferon, thymopentin, interleukin-2, and levamisole as immunostimulants or adjuvants (3, 4), changing the injection mode (intradermal versus intramuscular), or doubling the vaccine dose (5). Objectives: Previous studies demonstrated that renal failure patients benefit from HBV vaccination; however, not all studies have demonstrated this. Therefore, we compared the rates of seroconversion (hepatitis B surface antibody [HBsAb] titer > 10 IU/mL) in patients at various stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) who received HBV vaccination. Patients and Methods: A total of 167 patients in 3 different stages of CKD were vaccinated against HBV. Each patient received the vaccine according to a standardized vaccination schedule consisting of 40 μg of the recombinant vaccine "Engerix" at 0, 1, and 6 months. Eight to 12 weeks after the last dose of vaccination, anti-HBsAb levels were measured. Results: Mean age and eGFR were 57.4 ± 16.5 years and 26.7 ± 14.7 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The overall seroconversion rate was 78%. Although a significant correlation between HBsAb titer and eGFR (r = 0.265, P = 0.001) was observed, in the multivariate analysis using age, CKD stage, diabetes mellitus, and gender as independent variables, the degree of renal function did not significantly contribute to seroconversion. In contrast, higher age (> 60 years) showed a significant negative correlation to seroconversion (odds ratio = 0.22; P = 0.004). Conclousions: CKD patients of advanced age should be vaccinated against HBV. Although higher eGFR was not associated with improved seroconversion, the persistence of seroconversion was not evaluated; future studies should be conducted to develop recommendations for earlier or later vaccination.
Old CKD patients should have HBV Vaccination as soon as possible which may not be true for younger ones. Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
Mahdavi-Mazdeh M, Hosseini-Moghaddam SM, Abbasi M, Hatmi Zinat N, Ahmadi F. Efficacy of HBV Vaccination in Various Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease: Is Earlier Better? Hepat Mon. 2011;11(10):816-20. Please cite this paper as:
© 2011 Kowsar M.P.Co. All rights reserved.
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