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Hepatitis B Vaccination in Chronic Kidney Disease: Review of Evidence in Non-Dialyzed Patients

AUTHORS

Alicja E. Grzegorzewska 1 , *

AUTHORS INFORMATION

1 Department of Nephrology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Pozna? University of Medical Sciences, alicja_grzegorzewska@yahoo.com, Poland

How to Cite: Grzegorzewska A E. Hepatitis B Vaccination in Chronic Kidney Disease: Review of Evidence in Non-Dialyzed Patients, Hepat Mon. 2012 ; 12(11):7359. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.7359.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Hepatitis Monthly: 12 (11); 7359
Published Online: November 14, 2012
Article Type: Review Article
Received: July 21, 2012
Accepted: September 2, 2012
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Abstract

Context: Hepatitis B vaccination of hemodialysis patients is performed all over the world. There are also recommendations from world health organizations to vaccinate patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior dialysis commencement, but the implementation of a hepatitis B vaccination program is less common and not well organized.

Evidence Acquisition: This review article summarizes data indicating why, when and how to vaccinate CKD patients before they start renal replacement therapy. Publication for this review was bringing into being from PubMed.

Results: There is an agreement in the nephrological societies and among clinicians and scientists that CKD patients should be vaccinated in early stages of their disease, because a higher glomerular filtration rate is more likely to be associated with the responsiveness to vaccination. Schedules of vaccination and optimal vaccine doses are still being investigated. Differences in data with respect to these problems may result from comparisons of various vaccine doses and vaccination schedules without reference to one gold standard, variations in patients` clinical status and glomerular filtration rate, and also the small groups of the affected patients make statistical analysis non-conclusive. A titer of antibodies to surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs) > 10 IU/L or 10 IU/L is commonly considered as a marker of seroconversion to anti-HBs positivity after vaccination in both non-dialyzed and dialyzed patients. In advanced CKD, vaccineinduced serconversion rate is seldom observed in more than 90% of vaccinees. Various strategies have been utilized in order to increase vaccine-induced seroconversion rate in patients with advanced CKD. Changing the injection mode, the use of adjuvants and immunostimulants to improve the immunogenicity of existing recombinant hepatitis B vaccines, introduction of mammalian-cell derived pre-S/S HBV vaccines (third-generation vaccines) were tried in order to improve the immunization rate.

Conclusions: There are a substantial number of non-responders to the hepatitis B vaccine among CKD patients. Therefore, successful prevention of hepatitis B virus transmission and spread will only be attained when hepatitis B vaccination is applied together with full implementation of appropriate infection control procedures.

Keywords

Vaccination Hepatitis B Virus Kidney Disease

© 2012, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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