Hepatitis Monthly

Published by: Kowsar

Treatment of HCV Infection with Direct-acting Antiviral Agents in Patients with HIV/HCV Co-infection: A Systematic Review

Seyed Moayed Alavian 1 , 2 , 3 , Fardin Dolatimehr 1 , 2 , 3 , Heidar Sharafi 1 , 2 , 3 , Mahdi Safi-Abadi 1 , 2 , 3 , Mohammad Saeid Rezaee-Zavareh 1 , 2 , 3 , Mohammad Ehsan Bayatpour 1 , 2 , 3 , Hamidreza Karimi-Sari 1 , 2 , 3 and Saman Mohazzab-Torabi 2 , 3 , *
Authors Information
1 Baqiyatallah Research Center for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Middle East Liver Diseases Center, Tehran, Iran
3 Meta-Analysis Study Group, Iran Hepatitis Network, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Hepatitis Monthly: December 28, 2018, 18 (12); e82971
  • Published Online: December 25, 2018
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: August 5, 2018
  • Revised: October 12, 2018
  • Accepted: December 2, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/hepatmon.82971

To Cite: Alavian S M, Dolatimehr F, Sharafi H, Safi-Abadi M, Rezaee-Zavareh M S, et al. Treatment of HCV Infection with Direct-acting Antiviral Agents in Patients with HIV/HCV Co-infection: A Systematic Review, Hepat Mon. 2018 ; 18(12):e82971. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.82971.

Abstract
Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Objectives
3. Evidence Acquisition
4. Results
5. Discussion
6. Conclusions
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Platt L, Easterbrook P, Gower E, McDonald B, Sabin K, McGowan C, et al. Prevalence and burden of HCV co-infection in people living with HIV: A global systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016;16(7):797-808. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00485-5. [PubMed: 26922272].
  • 2. Sulkowski MS, Eron JJ, Wyles D, Trinh R, Lalezari J, Wang C, et al. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir co-dosed with ritonavir, dasabuvir, and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients co-infected with HIV-1: A randomized trial. JAMA. 2015;313(12):1223-31. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.1328. [PubMed: 25706092].
  • 3. Word Haelth Organization. Global alert and response (GAR) hepatitis C 2012. 2017.
  • 4. Shepard CW, Finelli L, Alter MJ. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5(9):558-67. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70216-4. [PubMed: 16122679].
  • 5. Staples CT Jr, Rimland D, Dudas D. Hepatitis C in the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) Atlanta V.A. (veterans affairs medical center) cohort study (HAVACS): The effect of coinfection on survival. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;29(1):150-4. doi: 10.1086/520144. [PubMed: 10433578].
  • 6. Alavian SM, Hajarizadeh B, Ahmadzad-Asl M, Kabir A, Bagheri-Lankarani K. Hepatitis B virus infection in Iran: A systematic review. Hepat Mon. 2008;8(4).
  • 7. Martin-Carbonero L, Benhamou Y, Puoti M, Berenguer J, Mallolas J, Quereda C, et al. Incidence and predictors of severe liver fibrosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C: A European collaborative study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38(1):128-33. doi: 10.1086/380130. [PubMed: 14679458].
  • 8. Benhamou Y, Bochet M, Di Martino V, Charlotte F, Azria F, Coutellier A, et al. Liver fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfected patients. The multivirc group. Hepatology. 1999;30(4):1054-8. doi: 10.1002/hep.510300409. [PubMed: 10498659].
  • 9. Miro JM, Stock P, Teicher E, Duclos-Vallee JC, Terrault N, Rimola A. Outcome and management of HCV/HIV coinfection pre- and post-liver transplantation. A 2015 update. J Hepatol. 2015;62(3):701-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.10.032. [PubMed: 25450714].
  • 10. Simmons B, Saleem J, Heath K, Cooke GS, Hill A. Long-term treatment outcomes of patients infected with hepatitis C virus: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the survival benefit of achieving a sustained virological response. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(5):730-40. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ396. [PubMed: 25987643]. [PubMed Central: PMC4530725].
  • 11. Pawlotsky JM, Aghemo A, Back D, Dusheiko G, Forns X; European Association for Study of Liver, et al. EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2015. J Hepatol. 2015;63(1):199-236. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.03.025. [PubMed: 25911336].
  • 12. Reiberger T, Obermeier M, Payer BA, Baumgarten A, Weitner L, Moll A, et al. Considerable under-treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV patients despite acceptable sustained virological response rates in a real-life setting. Antivir Ther. 2011;16(6):815-24. doi: 10.3851/IMP1831. [PubMed: 21900713].
  • 13. Patel M, Rab S, Kalapila AG, Kyle A, Okosun IS, Miller L. Highly successful hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment outcomes in human immunodeficiency virus/HCV-coinfected patients at a large, urban, ryan white clinic. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(2):ofx062. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofx062. [PubMed: 28534036]. [PubMed Central: PMC5421352].
  • 14. Mandorfer M, Neukam K, Reiberger T, Payer BA, Rivero A, Puoti M, et al. The impact of interleukin 28B rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism and liver fibrosis stage on response-guided therapy in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. AIDS. 2013;27(17):2707-14. doi: 10.1097/01.aids.0000432460.44593.ef. [PubMed: 23835502].
  • 15. Haj-Sheykholeslami A, Keshvari M, Sharafi H, Pouryasin A, Hemmati K, Mohammadzadehparjikolaei F. Interferon-lambda polymorphisms and response to pegylated interferon in Iranian hepatitis C patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21(29):8935-42. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i29.8935. [PubMed: 26269684]. [PubMed Central: PMC4528037].
  • 16. Naggie S, Cooper C, Saag M, Workowski K, Ruane P, Towner WJ, et al. Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for HCV in patients coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(8):705-13. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1501315. [PubMed: 26196665]. [PubMed Central: PMC4892372].
  • 17. Rockstroh JK, Nelson M, Katlama C, Lalezari J, Mallolas J, Bloch M, et al. Efficacy and safety of grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) in patients with hepatitis C virus and HIV co-infection (C-EDGE CO-INFECTION): A non-randomised, open-label trial. Lancet HIV. 2015;2(8):e319-27. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00114-9. [PubMed: 26423374].
  • 18. Alavian SM, Hajarizadeh B, Bagheri Lankarani K, Sharafi H, Ebrahimi Daryani N, Merat S, et al. Recommendations for the clinical management of hepatitis C in Iran: A consensus-based national guideline. Hepat Mon. 2016;16(8). e40959. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.guideline. [PubMed: 27799966]. [PubMed Central: PMC5075356].
  • 19. Alavian SM, Sharafi H. Update on recommendations for the clinical management of hepatitis C in Iran 2017. Hepat Mon. 2017;17(11). e63956. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.63956.
  • 20. Cope R, Pickering A, Glowa T, Faulds S, Veldkamp P, Prasad R. Majority of HIV/HCV patients need to switch antiretroviral therapy to accommodate direct acting antivirals. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(7):379-83. doi: 10.1089/apc.2015.0004. [PubMed: 26066094].
  • 21. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Prisma Group . Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7). e1000097. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097. [PubMed: 19621072]. [PubMed Central: PMC2707599].
  • 22. Higgins JP, Altman DG. Assessing risk of bias in included studies. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: Cochrane book series. 2008. p. 187-241.
  • 23. Stang A. Critical evaluation of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for the assessment of the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. Eur J Epidemiol. 2010;25(9):603-5. doi: 10.1007/s10654-010-9491-z. [PubMed: 20652370].
  • 24. Del Bello D, Cha A, Sorbera M, Bichoupan K, Levine C, Doyle E, et al. Real-world sustained virologic response rates of sofosbuvir-containing regimens in patients coinfected with hepatitis C and HIV. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(12):1497-504. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw119. [PubMed: 26936665]. [PubMed Central: PMC4885645].
  • 25. Johnson TM, Sison R, Fallon JP, Shukla PP, Bhattarai S, Galang H, et al. Clinical experience with dolutegravir/abacavir/lamivudine in HIV-HCV co-infected patients treated with a sofosbuvir-based regimen-safety and efficacy. HIV Clin Trials. 2016;17(6):242-5. doi: 10.1080/15284336.2016.1248625. [PubMed: 27846791].
  • 26. Grant JL, Hawkins C, Brooks H, Palella FJ, Koppe SW, Abecassis MM, et al. Successful sofosbuvir-based therapy in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected liver transplant recipients with recurrent hepatitis C virus infection. AIDS. 2016;30(1):93-8. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000887. [PubMed: 26731756]. [PubMed Central: PMC4754111].
  • 27. Hawkins C, Grant J, Ammerman LR, Palella F, McLaughlin M, Green R, et al. High rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure using direct-acting antivirals in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients: A real-world perspective. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016;71(9):2642-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw203. [PubMed: 27330060]. [PubMed Central: PMC4992854].
  • 28. Merli M, Galli L, Marinaro L, Ariaudo A, Messina E, Uberti-Foppa C, et al. Pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir and rilpivirine in combination with simeprevir and sofosbuvir in HIV/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients with liver cirrhosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017;72(3):812-5. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw492. [PubMed: 27999010].
  • 29. Milazzo L, Lai A, Calvi E, Ronzi P, Micheli V, Binda F, et al. Direct-acting antivirals in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected and HCV/HIV-coinfected patients: Real-life safety and efficacy. HIV Med. 2017;18(4):284-91. doi: 10.1111/hiv.12429. [PubMed: 27477612].
  • 30. Bruno G, Saracino A, Fabrizio C, Scudeller L, Milano E, Dell'Acqua R, et al. Safety and effectiveness of a 12-week course of sofosbuvir and simeprevir +/- ribavirin in HCV-infected patients with or without HIV infection: A multicentre observational study. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017;49(3):296-301. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2016.11.030. [PubMed: 28163136].
  • 31. Montes ML, Olveira A, Ahumada A, Aldamiz T, Garcia-Samaniego J, Clemente A, et al. Similar effectiveness of direct-acting antiviral against hepatitis C virus in patients with and without HIV infection. AIDS. 2017;31(9):1253-60. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001465. [PubMed: 28358742].
  • 32. Piroth L, Wittkop L, Lacombe K, Rosenthal E, Gilbert C, Miailhes P, et al. Efficacy and safety of direct-acting antiviral regimens in HIV/HCV-co-infected patients - French ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH cohort. J Hepatol. 2017;67(1):23-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2017.02.012. [PubMed: 28235612].
  • 33. Campos-Varela I, Moreno A, Morbey A, Guaraldi G, Hasson H, Bhamidimarri KR, et al. Treatment of severe recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation in HIV infected patients using sofosbuvir-based therapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;43(12):1319-29. doi: 10.1111/apt.13629. [PubMed: 27098374].
  • 34. Molina JM, Orkin C, Iser DM, Zamora FX, Nelson M, Stephan C, et al. Sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients co-infected with HIV (PHOTON-2): A multicentre, open-label, non-randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2015;385(9973):1098-106. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)62483-1. [PubMed: 25659285].
  • 35. Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Sulkowski M, Naggie S, Puoti M, Orkin C, et al. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV: The impact on patient-reported outcomes. J Infect Dis. 2015;212(3):367-77. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv005. [PubMed: 25583164]. [PubMed Central: PMC5007583].
  • 36. Sulkowski MS, Naggie S, Lalezari J, Fessel WJ, Mounzer K, Shuhart M, et al. Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients with HIV coinfection. JAMA. 2014;312(4):353-61. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.7734. [PubMed: 25038354]. [PubMed Central: PMC4997358].
  • 37. El Sayed A, Barbati ZR, Turner SS, Foster AL, Morey T, Dieterich DT, et al. Sofosbuvir in the treatment of early HCV infection in HIV-infected men. HIV Clin Trials. 2017;18(2):60-6. doi: 10.1080/15284336.2017.1280594. [PubMed: 28183221].
  • 38. Cooper C, Naggie S, Saag M, Yang JC, Stamm LM, Dvory-Sobol H, et al. Successful re-treatment of hepatitis C virus in patients coinfected with HIV who relapsed after 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(4):528-31. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw349. [PubMed: 27225242]. [PubMed Central: PMC4967607].
  • 39. Osinusi A, Townsend K, Kohli A, Nelson A, Seamon C, Meissner EG, et al. Virologic response following combined ledipasvir and sofosbuvir administration in patients with HCV genotype 1 and HIV co-infection. JAMA. 2015;313(12):1232-9. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.1373. [PubMed: 25706232].
  • 40. Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Sulkowski M, Naggie S, Henry L, Hunt S. Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir improve patient-reported outcomes in patients co-infected with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. J Viral Hepat. 2016;23(11):857-65. doi: 10.1111/jvh.12554. [PubMed: 27291391].
  • 41. Ingiliz P, Christensen S, Kimhofer T, Hueppe D, Lutz T, Schewe K, et al. Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir for 8 weeks for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HCV-monoinfected and HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals: Results from the German hepatitis C cohort (GECCO-01). Clin Infect Dis. 2016;63(10):1320-4. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw567. [PubMed: 27535952].
  • 42. Steiner S, Bucsics T, Schwabl P, Mandorfer M, Scheiner B, Aichelburg MC, et al. Progress in eradication of HCV in HIV positive patients with significant liver fibrosis in Vienna. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017;129(15-16):517-26. doi: 10.1007/s00508-016-1162-y. [PubMed: 28130599]. [PubMed Central: PMC5552846].
  • 43. Bhattacharya D, Belperio PS, Shahoumian TA, Loomis TP, Goetz MB, Mole LA, et al. Effectiveness of all-oral antiviral regimens in 996 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus genotype 1-coinfected patients treated in routine practice. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(12):1711-20. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix111. [PubMed: 28199525].
  • 44. Luetkemeyer AF, McDonald C, Ramgopal M, Noviello S, Bhore R, Ackerman P. 12 weeks of daclatasvir in combination with sofosbuvir for HIV-HCV coinfection (ALLY-2 study): Efficacy and safety by HIV combination antiretroviral regimens. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(12):1489-96. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw163. [PubMed: 27025835]. [PubMed Central: PMC4885650].
  • 45. Mandorfer M, Schwabl P, Steiner S, Chromy D, Bucsics T, Stättermayer AF, et al. Interferon-free treatment with sofosbuvir/daclatasvir achieves sustained virologic response in 100% of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver disease. Z Gastroenterol. 2016;54(5). doi: 10.1055/s-0036-1584038.
  • 46. Wyles DL, Ruane PJ, Sulkowski MS, Dieterich D, Luetkemeyer A, Morgan TR, et al. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir for HCV in patients coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(8):714-25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1503153. [PubMed: 26196502].
  • 47. Castells L, Llaneras J, Campos-Varela I, Bilbao I, Crespo M, Len O, et al. Sofosbuvir and daclatasvir in mono- and HIV-coinfected patients with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplant. Ann Hepatol. 2017;16(1):86-93. doi: 10.5604/16652681.1226819. [PubMed: 28051797].
  • 48. Rockstroh JK, Ingiliz P, Petersen J, Peck-Radosavljevic M, Welzel TM, Van der Valk M, et al. Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, in real-world patients with HIV-HCV coinfection and advanced liver disease. Antivir Ther. 2017;22(3):225-36. doi: 10.3851/IMP3108. [PubMed: 27845298].
  • 49. Sulkowski M, Hezode C, Gerstoft J, Vierling JM, Mallolas J, Pol S, et al. Efficacy and safety of 8 weeks versus 12 weeks of treatment with grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) with or without ribavirin in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 mono-infection and HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infection (C-WORTHY): A randomised, open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9973):1087-97. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61793-1. [PubMed: 25467560].
  • 50. Massimo A, Teti E, Antinori A, Milazzoi L, Sollima S, Rizzardini G, et al. Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir and Dasabuvir Combination Treatment in Patients with HIV/HCV Co-Infection: Results of an Italian Compassionate Use Program. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;64(5):680-3. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw846. [PubMed: 28011605].
  • 51. Younossi ZM, Stepanova M, Sulkowski M, Wyles D, Kottilil S, Hunt S. Patient-reported outcomes in patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus treated with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir: The ASTRAL-5 study. Liver Int. 2017;37(12):1796-804. doi: 10.1111/liv.13462. [PubMed: 28470938].
  • 52. Buti M, Calleja JL, Forns X, Diago M, Ortega E, Crespo J, et al. Simeprevir plus sofosbuvir for hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection: A phase 3, open-label study. J Hepatol. 2016;64(2):S220-1. doi: 10.1016/s0168-8278(16)00193-8.
  • 53. Pawlotsky JM, Negro F, Aghemo A, Berenguer M, Dalgard O, Dusheiko G, et al. EASL recommendations on treatment of hepatitis C 2018. J Hepatol. 2018;69(2):461-511. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2018.03.026.
  • 54. European Association for the Study of the Liver; Electronic address. EASL Recommendations on Treatment of Hepatitis C 2016. J Hepatol. 2017;66(1):153-94. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.09.001. [PubMed: 27667367].
  • 55. Desnoyer A, Pospai D, Le MP, Gervais A, Heurgue-Berlot A, Laradi A, et al. Pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of a full dose sofosbuvir-based regimen given daily in hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2016;65(1):40-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2016.02.044. [PubMed: 26952005].
  • 56. Guaraldi G, Rossotti R, Verucchi G, Tavio M, Pasulo L, Beghetto B, et al. Successful pre- and posttransplant sofosbuvir-based anti-hepatitis C virus treatment in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2017;4(2):ofx065. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofx065. [PubMed: 28584851]. [PubMed Central: PMC5451199].
  • 57. Rezaee-Zavareh MS, Hesamizadeh K, Behnava B, Alavian SM, Gholami-Fesharaki M, Sharafi H. Combination of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Hepatol. 2017;16(2):188-97. doi: 10.5604/16652681.1231562. [PubMed: 28233739].
  • 58. Wyles D, Saag M, Viani RM, Lalezari J, Adeyemi O, Bhatti L, et al. TURQUOISE-I part 1b: Ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-1 coinfected patients on darunavir. J Infect Dis. 2017;215(4):599-605. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiw597. [PubMed: 28329334].
  • 59. Agarwal K, Dumas EO, Gaeta GB, Lee S, Streinu-Cercel A, Schott E, et al. Long-term clinical outcomes in HCV genotype 1-infected patients receiving ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir±ribavirin: First interim safety and efficacy results from TOPAZ-I. Hepatology. 2016;64:427.
  • 60. Wei L, Hou J, Luo Y, Heo J, Chu CJ, Duan Z, et al. ONYX-I: Safety and efficacy of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir in Asian adults with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. 26th Conference of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL). Feb 15-19; Shanghai, China. 2017.
  • 61. Feld JJ, Moreno C, Trinh R, Tam E, Bourgeois S, Horsmans Y, et al. Sustained virologic response of 100% in HCV genotype 1b patients with cirrhosis receiving ombitasvir/paritaprevir/r and dasabuvir for 12weeks. J Hepatol. 2016;64(2):301-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2015.10.005. [PubMed: 26476290].
  • 62. Feld JJ, Jacobson IM, Hezode C, Asselah T, Ruane PJ, Gruener N, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for HCV genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;373(27):2599-607. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1512610. [PubMed: 26571066].
  • 63. Tsai N, Bacon B, Curry M, Dieterich D, Flamm S, Kowdley K, et al. Utilization of DAA therapies ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir in patients with genotype 1 HCV: Real-world experience from the TRIO network. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(5). S1091. doi: 10.1016/S0016-5085(17)33676-4.
  • 64. Wyles D, Brau N, Kottilil S, Daar ES, Ruane P, Workowski K, et al. Sofosbuvir and velpatasvir for the treatment of hepatitis C Virus in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1: An open-label, phase 3 study. Clin Infect Dis. 2017;65(1):6-12. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix260. [PubMed: 28369210]. [PubMed Central: PMC6248627].
  • 65. Gower E, Estes C, Blach S, Razavi-Shearer K, Razavi H. Global epidemiology and genotype distribution of the hepatitis C virus infection. J Hepatol. 2014;61(1 Suppl):S45-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jhep.2014.07.027. [PubMed: 25086286].
  • 66. Bryan JP. Viral hepatitis: Update on hepatitis C. Consultant. 1995;35(10):1551-4.
  • 67. Kanda T, Imazeki F, Yokosuka O. New antiviral therapies for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatol Int. 2010;4(3):548-61. doi: 10.1007/s12072-010-9193-3. [PubMed: 21063477]. [PubMed Central: PMC2940000].
  • 68. Hesamizadeh K, Sharafi H, Rezaee-Zavareh MS, Behnava B, Alavian SM. Next steps toward eradication of hepatitis C in the Era of direct acting antivirals. Hepat Mon. 2016;16(4). e37089. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.37089. [PubMed: 27275164]. [PubMed Central: PMC4893415].
  • 69. Dolatimehr F, Karimi-Sari H, Rezaee-Zavareh MS, Alavian SM, Behnava B, Gholami-Fesharaki M, et al. Combination of sofosbuvir, pegylated-interferon and ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Daru. 2017;25(1):11. doi: 10.1186/s40199-017-0177-x. [PubMed: 28427463]. [PubMed Central: PMC5397824].
  • 70. Afdhal N, Reddy KR, Nelson DR, Lawitz E, Gordon SC, Schiff E, et al. Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for previously treated HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(16):1483-93. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1316366. [PubMed: 24725238].
  • 71. Ferenci P, Bernstein D, Lalezari J, Cohen D, Luo Y, Cooper C, et al. ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for HCV. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(21):1983-92. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1402338. [PubMed: 24795200].
  • 72. Sharafi H, Nikbin M, Alavian SH, Behnava B, Alavian SM. Efficacy and safety of generic sofosbuvir/ledipasvir fixed-dose combination in Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Hepat Mon. 2017;17(6). e12216. doi: 10.5812/hepatmon.12216.
  • 73. Karageorgopoulos DE, Allen J, Bhagani S. Hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus co-infected individuals: Is this still a "special population"? World J Hepatol. 2015;7(15):1936-52. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i15.1936. [PubMed: 26244068]. [PubMed Central: PMC4517153].
  • 74. Department of Health and Human Services. Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection; Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, January 28, 2000 by the panel on clinical practices for treatment of HIV infection. HIV Clin Trials. 2000;1(1):60-110. doi: 10.1310/hct.2000.1.1.008. [PubMed: 11590490].
  • 75. European AIDS Clinical Society. Guidelines version 8.0. October. Brussels, Belgium; 2015. Available from: http://www.eacsociety.org/files/guidelines-8.0-english.pdf.

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments